Aeneas Tacticus 27.





27. Of Panics

1. For dealing with sudden alarms or attacks of terror occurring by day or night in the city or camps, sometimes called panics (a Peloponnesian word, especially common in Arcadia), the following measures have been recommended. 2. Signals should be pre-arranged which the troops in the city will recognize, and perceive that a panic has occurred; there should also be a beacon-fire, in accordance with a pre-concerted plan, and on a spot visible, as far as may be, from all quarters of the city. 3. It is best to have issued orders in advance that wherever the alarm takes place, all troops are to remain at their posts and raise a paean, or pass the word round from man to man that it is only a panic. 4. If in any part of the force the paean is not raised in answer, you may assume that the panic has occurred there. If the general sees some real ground for apprehension, the bugle should be sounded: this should be the recognised alarm-signal.
Panics generally take place after a defeat in battle, occasionally in the day time, at night frequently. 5. To prevent their occurring so often, all the troops should have orders for the night to remain by their arms as far as possible, in readiness for emergencies: 6. this warning will probably prevent them, when emergency does arise, from being taken by surprise and thrown into confusion by a sudden panic, with disastrous results.
7. Euphratas, the Spartan governor in Thrace, finding night alarms of very frequent occurrence in his army, and being unable to stop them in any other way, issued the following orders for the night. 8. In the event of an alarm, the men were to sit up at once on their beds and to reach for their arms, but no-one was to stand up. Anyone standing upright he publicly ordered them to treat as an enemy. 9. Everyone, he thought, would take care to remember this order from fear of the consequences. And to show that he really meant what he said, when a panic did occur, one of his best men was struck down, though not killed, and some of the less valuable men actually lost their lives. 10. After this the men obeyed orders, and took care to have no more panics, and never again to leave their beds in a fright.
11. Another way of stopping a panic was this. While the camp was in an uproar one night, the herald called for silence and made the following proclamation: ‘Whosoever reports the person who let loose the horse which has caused this commotion…’
12. If an army is subject to this sort of thing at night, men of each company or regiment should in each watch be posted on the flanks and in the centre, so that if anyone is seen waking in a fright or otherwise beginning to make a disturbance, one of them will be immediately at hand to check and restrain him. 13. One man from each mess in the rest of the army should also be on guard to look out for groundless alarms and check panics in his own section. 14. You yourself should alarm the enemy’s forces at night by giving your heifers or other beasts wine to drink, and then driving them into the enemy’s camp with bells round their necks.


15. When day dawns, the guards should not be dismissed from their posts until the ground outside has been thoroughly explored, and it is known to be clear of hostile troops: the guards may then be dismissed, not all at once, but by detachments, to ensure there being always a certain number of men on duty.




27. Πανείων

1. Τοὺς δὲ περὶ πόλιν ἢ στρατόπεδα ἐξαίφνης θορύβους καὶ φόβους γενομένους νυκτὸς ἢ μεθ̓ ἡμέραν, ἅπερ ὑπό τινων καλεῖται πάνεια ῾ἔστιν δὲ τὸ ὄνομα Πελοποννήσιον καὶ μάλιστα Ἀρκαδικόν̓, 2. πρὸς ταῦτ̓ οὖν τινες κελεύουσι, καταπαύειν θέλοντες αὐτά, προσυγκεῖσθαι τοῖς ἐν τῇ πόλει σημεῖα, ἃ ἰδόντες γνώσονται: γνώσονται δὲ ὅτι ἔστιν πάνειον ὧδε: αἰσθήσονται διὰ πυρός τι προσυγκείμενον ἐπὶ χώρου εὐκατόπτου πᾶσιν εἰς δύναμιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ πόλει. 3. ἄριστον δὲ προπαρηγγέλθαι, καθ̓ οὓς ἂν τῶν στρατιωτῶν γένηται φόβος, κατὰ χώραν τε ἠρεμεῖν καὶ ἀναβοᾶν παιᾶνα, ἢ λέγειν ὅτι εἴη πάνειον καὶ τὸν ἀκούοντα ἀεὶ τῷ πλησίον παραγγέλλειν. 4. καθ̓ οὓς ἂν τοῦ στρατεύματος μὴ ἀντιπαιανίζωσιν, εἰδέναι κατὰ τούτους τὸν φόβον ὄντα. ἐὰν δέ τι ὁ στρατηγὸς φοβερὸν αἴσθηται, τῇ σάλπιγγι σημαίνειν: τοῦτο δ̓ ἔστω γνωστὸν ὅτι εἴη τὸ πολέμιον.
μάχης δὲ γενομένης καὶ νικηθέντων ὡς τὰ πολλὰ γίγνονται φόβοι, ἐνίοτε μὲν καὶ ἡμέρας, καὶ νυκτὸς δὲ καὶ πάνυ. 5. ὡς δὲ οὖν ἧσσόν τι τοιοῦτον γενέσθαι, χρὴ εἰς τὴν νύκτα παρηγγέλθαι τοῖς στρατιώταις πᾶσι κατὰ τὰ ὅπλα εἶναι ὡς μάλιστα, ὡς ἐσόμενόν τι περὶ αὐτούς. 6. προειδότας οὖν εἰκός ἐστιν, ἐάν τι γίγνηται, μὴ ἀπροσδοκήτους προσπεσεῖν, μηδὲ ὑπὸ φόβων ἐξαπιναίων ταράσσεσθαι καὶ ἀπόλλυσθαι.
7. Εὐφράτας δέ, ὁ Λακώνων ἁρμοστὴς ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης, ἐπεὶ αὐτῷ πυκνὰ ἐγίγνοντο ἐν τῷ στρατεύματι τὰς νύκτας φόβοι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδύναντο ἄλλῳ τρόπῳ παῦσαι, τοιόνδε παρήγγειλεν εἰς νύκτα. 8. ὅταν τις θόρυβος γίγνηται, ἀνακαθίζειν αὐτοὺς εὐθὺς πρὸς τὰ ὅπλα ἐν τῇ εὐνῇ, ἀνίστασθαι δὲ μηδένα ὀρθόν: ἂν δέ τις ἴδῃ τινὰ ὀρθόν, παρήγγειλεν ἐν πᾶσιν, ὥσπερ πολεμίῳ τῷ ἐπαναστάντι χρῆσθαι. 9. διὰ γὰρ τὸν φόβον τοῦ παραγγελθέντος οὐδένα ᾤετο ἀμνημονήσειν. πρὸς δὲ τούτοις, ὅπως ἀληθῶς τὸ παράγγελμα μετὰ φόβου ᾖ, γενομένου τινὸς θορύβου ἐπλήγη τις τῶν σπουδαιοτέρων ἀνδρῶν οὐχὶ θανατηφόρον, τῶν δὲ φαύλων τινὰ ὥστε καὶ ἀποθανεῖν. 10. συμβάντος δὲ τούτου ὑπήκουσάν τε οἱ ἄνθρωποι καὶ εὐλαβούμενοι ἐπαύσαντο τῶν τε θορύβων καὶ τοῦ περιδεῶς ἐξανίστασθαι ἐκ τῶν κοιτῶν.
11. ἐπαύθη δὲ καὶ τοιῷδε τρόπῳ. στρατοπέδῳ θορυβουμένῳ νυκτὸς κηρύξας σιγὴν ὁ κήρυξ ἀνήγγειλεν τὸν μηνύσαντα τὸν ἀφέντα τὸν ἵππον δἰ ὃν ἦν τὸ θορυβηθῆναι δῶρον ἀργυρίου λήψεσθαι.
12. χρὴ δ̓, ἄν τι τοιοῦτον ἐν ταῖς νυξὶ πάσχῃ στράτευμα, καθ̓ ἑκάστην φυλακὴν καθεστάναι ἑκάστου λόχου ἢ τάξεως ἐπὶ τοῖς κέρασι καὶ τοῖς μέσοις ἄνδρας οἳ προσέξουσιν ὅπως ἐάν τινα αἰσθάνωνται ἐκ τοῦ ὕπνου ἢ ἄλλως ἐρχόμενον θόρυβον, εὐθὺ ὁ παρὼν καθέξει καὶ κωλύσει αὐτίκα. 13. τοῦ δὲ ἄλλου πλήθους ἀπὸ συσσιτίου ἑκάστου ἄνδρα παραφυλάσσειν, ὅπως, ἐάν τις φόβος γένηται, οὗτοι δὴ εἰδότες τοὺς ματαίους φόβους καταπαύσωσι τοὺς παῤ αὑτῷ ἕκαστος. 14. Αὐτὸν δὲ θορυβεῖν νυκτὸς τὸ τῶν ἐναντίων στράτευμα δαμάλεις τὰς ἀγελαίας μετὰ κωδώνων ἀφιέντα εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ ἄλλα ὑποζύγια, οἶνον ποτίσαντα.


15. Γενομένης δὲ ἡμέρας χρὴ τοὺς φύλακας μὴ εὐθὺ ἀφιέναι ἐκ τῶν φυλακείων πρὶν ἢ τὰ ἔξω προερευνηθέντα ἐμφανισθῇ καὶ καθαρὰ εἶναι πολεμίων: καὶ οὕτω ἀπιέναι τοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν φυλακῶν μὴ ἅμα πάντας ἀλλὰ κατὰ μέρη, ὅπως ἀεί τινες ἐπὶ τοῖς φυλακείοις διατελῶσιν.

Greek displayed in unicode using the extended character set. If the more complicated accents are not displayed properly, download the Gentium font (free, available here). Alternatively, you can display Greek as an image (button on the left, text will open in new window).






created 04/07/2017 - updated 04/07/2017