Aeneas Tacticus 10.





10. [Notices]

1.The following order, too, should have been already issued:
‘All citizens who possess cattle or slaves are to lodge them with neighbours across the frontier, and on no account to bring them into the city.’
2. In the case of those who have no friends with whom to place them, the magistrates must deposit them on behalf of the state with people living near, and take means to ensure their safe keeping.


3. Then, after a certain interval, notices to the following effect should be published, to intimidate and deter intending traitors:
‘All free men and crops are to be brought in and lodged in the city: offenders are liable to the seizure of their property without redress.’
4. ‘All festivals are to be celebrated within the walls; no private meetings may be held anywhere either by day or by night; all necessary meetings are to be held in the prytaneion, council chamber, or other such public place’.
‘No prophet is to sacrifice privately without the presence of the magistrate.’
5. ‘No communal dinners are allowed; all are to dine in their own houses, except in the case of a wedding, or funeral feast, and then only after due notice has been given to the magistrates.’
6. If there are exiles from the city, proclamation should be made of the penalties attaching respectively to any citizen, foreigner, or slave who absconds. If anyone is seen with any of the exiles, or with any emissaries sent by them, or sends letters to them or receives letters from them, he should be liable to some penalty or fine; and all letters going out or coming in should be submitted to a board of censors before being sent out or delivered.
7. A list should be made of all those who have in their possession more than one set of arms, and no one should be allowed to carry arms out of the city or to take them in pledge.
It should be forbidden to hire soldiers or to serve for hire without leave from the magistrates.
8. No citizen or resident alien should sail out of the city except with a pass; and orders should have been given beforehand to ships to anchor only in front of those gates which are specified in a proclamation.
9. All strangers entering the city should carry their arms openly and ready to hand, and be disarmed immediately upon entrance; no one, not even an innkeeper, should take them without leave from the magistrates, who should keep a list of them, and of the addresses of any who take lodgings. 10. At night all inns should be locked up by the magistrates from the outside; and after a specified time all strangers who are vagrants should be given notice to quit, but a list should be made of members of neighbouring states residing in the city for educational and other purposes.
11. When official embassies come from other cities, tyrants or camps, the general public should not be allowed to mix and converse with them, but a number of citizens specially selected for their loyalty should always attend them, sharing their quarters during the whole time of their stay.
12. When the city is short of corn, oil or other supplies, a premium proportionate to the value of his cargo should be offered to any merchant who brings in a consignment, and also a wreath as a mark of honour, while the captain should be granted exemption from harbour dues.
13. Parades should be held frequently, and on each occasion strangers living in the city should be ordered to remove temporarily to a specified place or to keep within doors; if discovered elsewhere, they should be liable to prosecution. 14. At a given signal all stores and shops should be closed and all lights put out, after which the public should be forbidden to walk abroad: 15. anyone who is obliged to go out is to carry a lamp, until further notice. A reward should be offered to any man who brings information about any traitor, or gives evidence of the commission of any of the offences above mentioned; this reward should be displayed openly in the market place, or an altar, or in one of the temples, to encourage people to give such evidence more readily. 16. In the case of any monarch, general or ruler who is in exile, it should be further announced that ‹anyone who slays him will receive such-and-such a reward,› and that if the slayer himself is slain, the reward will be paid to his children, or, if there are no children, to his next of kin. 17. Even if a follower of the exiled ruler, monarch or general conspires against him, he should be paid part of the reward and allowed to return from exile; this will be a strong inducement to make the attempt.
18. The mercenary troops should be assembled, silence ordered, and the following proclamation made in the hearing of all: 19. ‘If anyone is discontented and wishes to depart, he may take his discharge now; after this, any malcontent will at once be sold as a slave. Minor offences will be punished according to the recognized law by imprisonment, but if any man is caught tampering with the army and inducing men to desert, he will pay for it with his life.’
20. In the next place, all other classes should be kept under careful supervision. It should first be ascertained whether the citizens are all of one mind: for this would be the greatest advantage possible in time of siege; if they are not, it is advisable unostentatiously to get rid of some of those who are discontented with the present government, especially when they have been prominent on or responsible for any intrigue in the city: this may be done plausibly by sending the suspects elsewhere on embassies or other public service.
21. It was thus that Dionysius dealt with his brother Leptines, when he saw that he was in high favour with the people of Syracuse, and that his position was in many ways a strong one: suspecting his loyalty, he determined to remove him, but did not attempt to banish him openly, knowing that his popularity would gain him considerable support, and that violent measures might lead to revolution. His plan was this. 22. He dispatched him with a few mercenaries to a city called Himera, with orders to replace the present garrison by the troops he had with him; and on his arrival there sent him further orders to remain until he was definitely recalled.
23. When a city which has given hostages is attacked, the parents and relatives of the hostages should be removed from it until the siege is over, that they may not see their children brought up with the enemy as they attack, and meeting a cruel death: for if within the walls they might go so far as to offer resistance to the authorities. 24. If it proves difficult to use the pretexts I have mentioned for sending them away, they must remain, but should be assigned as small a part as possible in the conduct of operations, and should not know in advance where they will be sent or what they will have to do. They must be left as little as possible on guard by themselves, either by day or by night; and even when they are left alone, a number of people should, without raising suspicion, keep coming upon them in the execution of various commissions and special services: under whose observation they will be really under guard rather than on guard. 25. They should also be separated, for purposes of supervision; in this way there will be little chance of their making trouble.
Further, no lamp or other light should be taken by a man when he goes to bed; for it has happened before now that when people’s attempts to revolt and intrigue with the enemy were completely baulked, 26. they hit upon the plan of bringing lanterns, torches and laps to their posts, as well as the baskets and rugs they usually carried, saying that they must have some light to go to bed by, and by means of these lights made signals to the enemy. A sharp look-out, therefore, must be kept for all such devices.





1. Δεῖ δὲ καὶ τάδε παρηγγέλθαι τῶν πολιτῶν τοῖς κεκτημένοις ζεύγη ἢ ἀνδράποδα ὑπεκτίθεσθαι εἰς τοὺς προσοίκους, ὡς οὐκ εἰσαξόντων εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
2. οἷς δ̓ ἂν μὴ ὑπάρξῃ ξενία παῤ οὓς θήσονται, τοὺς ἄρχοντας δημοσίᾳ παρατίθεσθαι τοῖς προσοίκοις, παρασκευάζοντας δἰ ὧν σωθήσεται τὰ ὑπεκτιθέμενα. Κηρύγματα


3. Ἔπειτα κηρύγματα ποιεῖσθαι τοιάδε διά τινος χρόνου, φόβου καὶ ἀποτροπῆς τῶν ἐπιβουλευόντων ἕνεκεν. κατακομίζειν τὰ ἐλεύθερα σώματα καὶ τοὺς καρποὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει, τοῦ δὲ ἀνηκουστοῦντος ἐξουσίαν εἶναι τῷ βουλομένῳ ἀζήμια ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν τὰ ἐκ τῆς χώρας.
4. τάς τε ἑορτὰς κατὰ πόλιν ἄγειν, συλλόγους τε ἰδίους μηδαμοῦ μήτε ἡμέρας μήτε νυκτὸς γίγνεσθαι, τοὺς δὲ ἀναγκαίους ἢ ἐν πρυτανείῳ ἢ ἐν βουλῇ ἢ ἐν ἄλλῳ φανερῷ τόπῳ.
μηδὲ θύεσθαι μάντιν ἰδίᾳ ἄνευ τοῦ ἄρχοντος.
5. μηδὲ δειπνεῖν κατὰ συσσιτίαν ἀλλ̓ ἐν ταῖς αὑτῶν οἰκίαις ἑκάστους, ἔξω γάμου καὶ περιδείπνου, καὶ ταῦτα προαπαγγείλαντας τοῖς ἄρχουσιν. Ἐὰν δὲ ὦσιν φυγάδες, ἐπικηρύσσειν, ὃς ἂν ἀστῶν ἢ ξένων ἢ δούλων ἀποκινῇ, ἃ ἑκάστῳ τούτων ἔσται.
6. καὶ ἐάν τίς τινι τῶν φυγάδων συγγένηται ἢ παῤ ἐκείνων τισὶν ἢ ἐπιστολὰς πέμψῃ ἢ δέξηται, εἶναί τινα κίνδυνον ἢ ἐπιτίμιον αὐτῷ. τῶν δὲ ἐκπεμπομένων καὶ εἰσαγομένων ἐπιστολῶν εἶναι ἐπισκόπησιν, πρὸς οὓς οἰσθήσεται πρότερον.
7. ὅπλα οἷς ἐστιν ἑνὸς πλείω ἀπογράφεσθαι, καὶ ἐξάγειν μηδένα μηδὲν ὅπλον, μηδὲ ἐνέχυρον δέχεσθαι.
στρατιώτας μὴ μισθοῦσθαι μηδὲ ἑαυτὸν μισθοῦν ἄνευ τῶν ἀρχόντων.
8. ἐκπλεῖν μηδένα ἀστῶν μηδὲ μέτοικον ἄνευ συμβόλου, τά τε πλοῖα προπαρηγγέλθαι ὁρμίζεσθαι καθ̓ ἃς πύλας ἐν τοῖς ἐχομένοις ῥηθήσεται.
9. ξένους τοὺς ἀφικνουμένους τὰ ὅπλα ἐμφανῆ καὶ πρόχειρα φέρειν, καὶ εὐθὺς αὐτῶν παραιρεῖσθαι, καὶ αὐτοὺς μηδένα ὑποδέχεσθαι, μηδὲ τοὺς πανδοκέας, ἄνευ τῶν ἀρχόντων, τοὺς δὲ ἄρχοντας ἀπογράφεσθαι καὶ παῤ ᾧ τίνες, ὅταν κατάγωνται. 10. τὰς δὲ νύκτας ὑπὸ τῶν ἀρχόντων τὰ πανδοκεῖα ἔξωθεν κλείεσθαι. διὰ χρόνου δέ τινος, ὅσοι ἂν ταλαπείριοι αὐτῶν ὦσιν, ἐκκηρύττεσθαι. ὁμόρους δὲ ἢ κατὰ παίδευσιν ἢ κατ̓ ἄλλην τινὰ χρείαν ἐπιδημοῦντας ἀπογράφεσθαι.
11. ταῖς δὲ δημοσίαις ἀφικνουμέναις πρεσβείαις ἀπὸ πόλεων ἢ τυράννων ἢ στρατοπέδων οὐ χρὴ ἐν αὑτοῖς τὸν ἐθέλοντα διαλέγεσθαι, ἀλλ̓ ἀεὶ παρεῖναί τινας τῶν πολιτῶν τοὺς πιστοτάτους, οἳ μετ̓ αὐτῶν συνδιατελοῦσιν μέχρις ἂν ἐνδημῶσιν οἱ πρέσβεις.
12. καὶ ὧν ἂν σπανίζῃ ἡ πόλις, σίτου ἢ ἐλαίου ἢ ἄλλου τινός, τῷ εἰσάγοντι κατὰ πλῆθος τῶν εἰσαγομένων τόκους προκεῖσθαι καὶ στέφανον δίδοσθαι εἰς τιμήν, τῷ δὲ ναυκλήρῳ ἀνολκὴν καὶ καθολκήν.
13. ἐξοπλισίας τε πυκνὰς ποιεῖσθαι, καὶ ξένους τοὺς ἐνδήμους τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον μεθίστασθαι εἰς χωρίον ῥητὸν ἢ κατ̓ οἶκον διατελεῖν: ᾗ δὲ ἂν ἄλλῃ φαίνηται, ζημίαν προκεῖσθαι ὡς ἀδικοῦντι. 14. ὅταν τε σημήνῃ, τούτοις τὰ ἐμπόρια καὶ πρατήρια κλείεσθαι, καὶ τὰ λύχνα κατασβέννυσθαι, καὶ τῶν ἄλλων μηδένα ἔτι παρεῖναι: 15. ὅταν δέ τινι ἀναγκαῖόν τι συμβῇ, μετὰ λαμπτῆρος βαδίζειν, ἕως ἂν ἀντιπαραγγελθῇ. καὶ ὃς ἂν καταμηνύσῃ τινὰ ἐπιβουλεύοντα τῇ πόλει, ἢ ὅ τι ἂν τῶν προγεγραμμένων τις πραττόμενον ἐξαγγείλῃ, ἀνηγγέλθαι τε αὐτῷ ἀργύριον καὶ τὸ ἀγγελθὲν ἐμφανῶς προκεῖσθαι ἐν ἀγορᾷ ἢ ἐπὶ βωμοῦ ἢ ἐν ἱερῷ, ἵνα προχειρότερόν τις τολμήσῃ μηνύειν τι τῶν προγεγραμμένων. 16. Ἐπὶ δὲ μονάρχῳ ἢ στρατηγῷ ἢ φυγάδι δυναστεύοντι χρὴ καὶ τάδε προκηρύττεσθαι ... ἐὰν δέ τι καὶ αὐτὸς πάθῃ ὁ ἀποκτείνας, τοῖς τέκνοις αὐτοῦ ἀποδίδοσθαι τὸ ἀγγελθὲν ἀργύριον: 17. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ᾖ τέκνα, τῷ ἐγγυτάτω γενομένῳ. καὶ ἐάν τις τῶν συνόντων τῷ φυγάδι ἢ μονάρχῳ ἢ στρατηγῷ πράξῃ τι ... τῶν προκειμένων ἀποδίδοσθαι καὶ κάθοδον αὐτῷ εἶναι: διὰ γὰρ ταῦτα προχειροτέρως ἂν ἐγχειροῖεν.
18. ἐν δὲ ξενικῷ στρατοπέδῳ τοιάδ̓, ἀναγγείλαντα σιγήν, πάντων ἀκουόντων κηρῦξαι. 19. εἴ τις βούλεται ἀπιέναι, μὴ ἀρεσκόμενοι τοῖς παροῦσιν, ἐξεῖναι ἀπαλλάττεσθαι: ἀλλ̓ ὕστερον ... πεπωλήσεται: τὰ δ̓ ἐλάσσω τούτων ἀδικήματα, κατὰ τὸν νόμον τὸν προκείμενον δεσμὸς ἡ ζημία. ἐὰν δέ τις φαίνηται βλάπτων τι τὸ στράτευμα, διαλύων τὸ στρατόπεδον, θάνατος ἔστω ἡ ζημία.
20. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα τῶν ἄλλων τάξεων ἐπιμέλειαν ποιητέον. καὶ πρῶτον ἐπισκεπτέον εἰ ὁμονοοῦσιν οἱ πολῖται, ὡς ἂν ὄντος μεγίστου τούτου ἀγαθοῦ ἐν πολιορκίᾳ: εἰ δὲ μή, τῶν τὰ ἐναντία φρονούντων τοῖς παροῦσι πράγμασι ... καὶ μάλιστ̓ ἂν ἡγεμόνας τε καὶ αἰτίους γενομένους ἐν τῇ πόλει πράξεώς τινος μεθιστάναι αὐτοὺς ἀνυπόπτως μετὰ προφάσεως εὐλόγου ἐκπέμποντα ἄλλῃ ὡς πρέσβεις τε καὶ ἐπ̓ ἄλλας δημοσίας ἐργασίας.
21. οἷον καὶ Διονύσιος ἔπραξεν Λεπτίνην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, ἔχοντα Συρακοσίων τῷ πλήθει οἰκείως καὶ ὁρῶν κατὰ πολλὰ ἰσχυρὸν αὐτὸν ὄντα: γενόμενος αὐτῷ ἐν ὑποψίᾳ τινί, καὶ θέλων αὐτὸν μεταστήσασθαι, φανερῶς μὲν οὐκ ἐπεχείρει ἐκβάλλειν αὐτόν, γνοὺς ὅτι περὶ αὐτὸν πολλὴ μετ̓ εὐνοίας ἰσχὺς ἔσοιτο καὶ νεώτερον ἄν τι γένοιτο: τεχνάζει δὲ τοιόνδε. 22. πέμπει αὐτὸν μετὰ ξένων ὀλίγων εἰς πόλιν ὄνομα Ἱμέραν, κελεύων φρουρὰν τὴν μὲν ἐξαγαγεῖν τὴν δὲ καταστῆσαι. γενομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ Ἱμέρᾳ, πέμψας ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸν περιμένειν, μέχρις ἂν αὐτὸς μεταπέμψηται.
23. Πόλεως δ̓ ὁμηρευομένης, ὅταν ἐπ̓ αὐτὴν στρατεία γίγνηται, τοὺς γονεῖς τῶν ὁμηρευόντων καὶ τοὺς ἐγγὺς τὰ γένη μεθίστασθαι ἐκ τῆς πόλεως, ἄχρις ἂν ἡ πολιορκία παρέλθῃ, ἵνα μὴ ἐφορῶσιν ἐν ταῖς προσαγωγαῖς τῶν πολεμίων τοὺς αὑτῶν παῖδας συμπροσαγομένους καὶ τὰ ἔσχατα πάσχοντας: ἐγχωρεῖ γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἔνδον ὄντας καὶ ὑπεναντίον τι πρᾶξαι. 24. ἐὰν δὲ ἄρα δυσχερὲς ᾖ μετὰ τῶνδε τῶν προφάσεων ἐκπέμπειν, συνδιάγειν αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐλαχίστων μετέχοντας ἔργων καὶ πράξεων καὶ μήτε ὅπου ἔσονται μήτε ὅ τι πράξουσιν προειδέναι, καὶ ὡς ἥκιστα ἐπὶ σφῶν αὐτῶν διατηροῦντας καὶ νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν: καὶ ἄλλας ἐπ̓ ἄλλαις πράξεις καὶ λειτουργίας αὐτοῖς τὸ πλῆθος ἐπιρρεῖν ἀνυπόπτως, μεθ̓ ὧν ὄντες ἐν φυλακῇ μᾶλλον ἔσονται ἢ φυλάξουσί τι. 25. ἔστωσαν δὲ διειλημμένοι ὡς εἰς παρατήρησιν: οὕτως γὰρ ἂν διακείμενοι ἥκιστα ἂν δύναιντο νεωτερίσαι.
Ἔτι τοίνυν μηδὲ εἰς τὰς κοίτας λαμπτῆρας φέρεσθαι μηδὲ ἄλλο νυκτερινὸν φέγγος: ἤδη γάρ τινες, ἐπεὶ πάντῃ ἐξείργονται μηδὲν νεωτερίσαι, θέλοντες, μηδὲ πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους τι πρᾶξαι, 26. τοιόνδε τεχνάζουσι. σὺν γὰρ τοῖς καλάθοις καὶ στρώμασι φερόμενοι εἰς τὰς φυλακὰς λύχνα οἱ δὲ δᾷδας οἱ δὲ λαμπτῆρας, ἵνα δὴ πρός τι κοιτασθῶσιν, διὰ τούτων τῶν φεγγέων σύσσημον ἐποιήσαντο: διὸ δεῖ πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ὑποπτεύειν.

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created 04/07/2017 - updated 04/07/2017